Landscapes represent complex systems with sets of social, biophysical, human, ecological and economic dimensions that interact with each other. Such interactions happen at multiple levels -the plot, farm, field levels and beyond.
Climate change interventions that take on a whole landscape approach integrate these elements to enable understanding of cross-scale interactions that determine numerous landscape-level patterns and changes. Understanding and building on interactions and feedback loops is thus important for success.
Our work on Landscapes focuses on the development, testing, analysis and implementation of modalities necessary for actualizing a landscape approach in benchmark sites spread across Africa, Southeast Asia and Latin America.
Currently we are working on the following concepts:
In principle REDD+ is implemented at the national level. Therefore all sustainable landscape emission reductions have to fit into the national level for accounting, integrity and efficiency reasons.
Our work contributes to knowledge on how to link these levels by focusing on nesting of policies and plans. Emphasis is on developing frameworks for rules on nesting (e.g. benefit sharing, risk management) and procedures (e.g. reporting, registration).
Farmers, communities and even the private sector need incentives in order to take up sustainable land use practices such as agroforestry and climate smart agriculture.
Currently, incentive schemes designed to address drivers of deforestation or incentivize emission reductions are being tested in selected landscapes at ASB Partnership benchmark sites
Tools and methodologies
Ongoing work involves scaling out and capacity building on REDD+ related landscape methods, policies and incentive schemes already developed. These include Manual for estimating opportunity costs for REDD+ (currently used by UN REDD and FCPF) and a protocol for monitoring soil organic carbon derived from the Land Degradation Surveillance Framework. These and other methods (REALU Methods Report) have been used to establish emission reduction baselines and trajectories at the landscape level in project countries.
Land Use Planning for Low Emission Development Strategy (LUWES) is also another tool that has been taken up widely in Indonesia to develop a multi-stakeholder decision making process for establishing land use plans for sustainable development.
We aim to create an enabling environment for policies on landscapes approaches through compilation of existing methods and tools and development of new guidelines that promote landscape approaches for emission reduction and livelihood improvement.
Our work also involves Capacity building for actors in landscapes. Training national and sub--‐national target groups and civil society organizations boost locally available expertise that could facilitate the implementation of the landscape approaches.